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Aram Il'yich Khachaturian was a اتحاد جماهیر شوروی سوسیالیستی مردم ارمنی composer and conductor. He is considered to have been one of the leading Soviet composers.[۱][۲][۳]

Born and raised in تفلیس, the capital of گرجستان, Khachaturian moved to مسکو in 1921 following the Sovietization of the قفقاز. Without prior music training, he enrolled in the Gnessin Musical Institute, subsequently studying at the کنسرواتوار دولتی چایکوفسکی مسکو in the class of نیکولای میاسکوفسکی, among others. His first major work, the کنسرتو پیانو (خاچاتوریان) (1936), popularized his name within and outside the Soviet Union. It was followed by the Violin Concerto (1940) and the Cello Concerto (1946). His other significant compositions include the Masquerade Suite (1941), the Anthem of the Armenian SSR (1944), three symphonies (1935, 1943, 1947), and around 25 film scores. Khachaturian is best known for his ballet music—گایانه (1942) and اسپارتاکوس (باله) (1954). His most popular piece, the "Sabre Dance" from Gayane, has been used extensively in popular culture and has been covered by a number of musicians worldwide.[۴] His style is "characterized by colorful harmonies, captivating rhythms, virtuosity, improvisations, and sensuous melodies".[۵]

During most of his career, Khachaturian was approved by the Soviet government and held several high posts in the Union of Soviet Composers from the late 1930s, although he joined the حزب کمونیست اتحاد شوروی only in 1943. Along with سرگئی پروکفیف and دمیتری شوستاکوویچ, he was officially denounced as a "formalist", and his music dubbed "anti-people" in 1948, but was restored later that year. After 1950 he taught at the Gnessin Institute and the Moscow Conservatory, and turned to conducting. He traveled to Europe, Latin America and the United States with concerts of his own works. In 1957 Khachaturian became the Secretary of the Union of Soviet Composers, a position he held until his death.

Khachaturian, who created the first Armenian ballet music, symphony, concerto, and film score,[upper-alpha ۱] is considered the most renowned Armenian composer of the 20th century. While following the established musical traditions of Russia, he broadly used موسیقی ارمنی and, to lesser extent, مردمان قفقاز, Eastern and Central European, and Middle Eastern peoples' folk music in his works. He is highly regarded in Armenia, where he is considered a "national treasure".[۸]


Background and early life (1903–21)[ویرایش]

Aram Khachaturian was born on 6 June (24 May in Old Style)[۹] 1903 in the city of Tiflis (present-day تفلیس, گرجستان) into an مردم ارمنی family.[۱۰][۱۱] Some sources indicate Kojori, a village near Tiflis (now in Georgia's Gardabani Municipality), as his birthplace.[۱۲][۱۳][۱۴] His father, Yeghia (Ilya), was born in the village of آزاد بالا near اردوباد in Nakhichevan (present-day جمهوری خودمختار نخجوان, Azerbaijan) and moved to Tiflis at the age of 13; he owned a bookbinding shop by the age of 25. His mother, Kumash Sarkisovna, was from آزادکند، نخجوان, also a village near Ordubad. Khachaturian's parents were betrothed before knowing each other, when Kumash was 9 and Yeghia was 19. They had 5 children, one daughter and four sons, of whom Aram was the youngest.[۱۵] Khachaturian received primary education at the commercial school of Tiflis, a school for merchants.[۱۶] He considered a career either in medicine or engineering.[۱۷]

In the 19th and early 20th centuries and throughout the early Soviet period, Tiflis (known as Tbilisi after 1936) was the largest city and the administrative center of the قفقاز. In Tiflis, which has historically been multicultural, Khachaturian was exposed to various cultures.[۱۸] The city had a large Armenian population and was a major Armenian cultural center until the انقلاب روسیه and the following years. In a 1952 article "My Idea of the Folk Element in Music", Khachaturian described the city environment and its influence on his career:

I grew up in an atmosphere rich in folk music: popular festivities, rites, joyous and sad events in the life of the people always accompanied by music, the vivid tunes of Armenian, Azerbaijani and Georgian songs and dances performed by folk bards [عاشیق] and musicians — such were the impressions that became deeply engraved on my memory, that determined my musical thinking. They shaped my musical consciousness and lay at the foundations of my artistic personality... Whatever the changes and improvements that took place in my musical taste in later years, their original substance, formed in early childhood in close communion with the people, has always remained the natural soil nourishing all my work.[۱۹]

In 1917, the Bolsheviks rose to power in Russia in the انقلاب اکتبر. After over two years of fragile independence, Armenia fell to Soviet rule in late 1920. Georgia was also Sovietized by the spring of 1921. Both countries formally became part of the Soviet Union in December 1922.[۲۰] Khachaturian later wrote that "the October Revolution fundamentally changed my whole life and, if I have really grown into a serious artist, then I am indebted only to the people and the Soviet Government. To this people is dedicated my entire conscious life, as is all my creative work."[۲۱] Khachaturian always remained enthusiastic about کمونیسم,[۲۲] and was an خداناباوری.[۲۳] When asked about his visit to the واتیکان, Khachaturian responded: "I'm an atheist, but I'm a son of the [Armenian] people who were the first to officially adopt Christianity and thus visiting the Vatican was my duty."[۲۴][۲۵]

Education (1922–36)[ویرایش]

In 1921, the eighteen-year-old Khachaturian moved to مسکو to join his oldest brother, Suren, who had settled in Moscow earlier and was a stage director at the تئاتر هنری مسکو by the time of his arrival.[۱۶][۱۵] He enrolled at the Gnessin Musical Institute in 1922, simultaneously studying biology at the دانشگاه دولتی مسکو.[۱۷][۲۶] He initially studied the cello under Sergei Bychkov and later under Andrey Borysyak.[۲۷][۱۱] In 1925, میخائیل گنیسین started a composition class at the institute, which Khachaturian joined.[۲۸][۱۶] He also took lessons from راینهولد گلیر. In this period, he wrote his first works: the Dance Suite for violin and piano (1926) and the Poem in C Sharp Minor (1927).[۱۷][۲۶] Beginning with his earliest works, Khachaturian extensively used Armenian folk music in his compositions.

In 1929, Khachaturian entered the کنسرواتوار دولتی چایکوفسکی مسکو to study composition under نیکولای میاسکوفسکی and orchestration under سرگئی واسیلنکو.[۲۹] In 1933, he married the composer نینا ماکارووا, a fellow student from Myaskovsky's class.[۳۰] He finished the conservatory in 1934 and went on to complete his graduate work in 1936.[۱۶]

Early career (1936–48)[ویرایش]

His Armenian-influenced First Symphony, which Khachaturian composed as a graduation work from the Moscow Conservatory in 1935, "drew the attention of prominent conductors and was soon performed by the best Soviet orchestras"[۱۸] and was admired by Shostakovich.[۱۹] He began an active creative career upon completing his graduate studies at the conservatory in 1936.[۲۶] He wrote his first major work, the کنسرتو پیانو (خاچاتوریان), that year.[۱۷] It proved to be a success, establishing him as a respected composer in the Soviet Union.[۱۱] It was "played and acclaimed far beyond the borders of the Soviet Union,"[۲] and "established his name abroad."[۱۸]

His Piano Concerto, along with the two later concertos—the Violin Concerto (1940), for which he won a State Prize (called the Stalin Prize then, the highest artistic award in the Soviet Union),[۱۷][۱۸] and the Cello Concerto (1946)—are "often considered a kind of a grand cycle."[۱۱] The Violin Concerto "gained international recognition"[۲] and became part of the international repertory.[۱۸] It was first performed by داوید اویستراخ.[۱۸]

Khachaturian held important posts at the Composers' Union, becoming deputy chairman of the Moscow branch in 1937. He subsequently served as the Deputy Chairman of the Organizing Committee (Orgkom) of the Union between 1939 and 1948.[۱۳][۳۱] He joined the Communist Party in 1943.[۱۶] "Throughout the early and mid-1940s, Khachaturian used that position to help shape Soviet music, always stressing but technically masterful composition. In fact, in his memoirs he reported pride about leading an institution that organized creative work in many musical genres and especially in all Soviet republics."[۳۲]

The years preceding and following World War II proved to be very productive for Khachaturian. In 1939 Khachaturian made a six-month trip to his native Armenia "to make a thorough study of Armenian musical folklore and to collect folk-song and dance tunes" for his first ballet, Happiness which he completed in the same year. "His communion with Armenia's national culture and musical practice proved for him as he put it himself, 'a second conservatoire'. He learned a lot, saw and heard many things anew, and at the same time he had an insight into the tastes and artistic requirements of the Armenian people."[۳۳] In 1942, at the height of the Second World War, he reworked it into the ballet گایانه.[۳۴] It was first performed by the Kirov Ballet (today known as باله مارینسکی) in پرم, while محاصره لنینگراد. It was a great success that earned Khachaturian a Soviet State Prize.[۲۶] Khachaturian returned the money of the prize to the state with a request to use it for building a tank for the Red Army.[۳۵]

He composed the Second Symphony (1943) on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the انقلاب اکتبر and incidental music to Masquerade (1944), "a symphonic suite in the tradition of lavish classical Russian music", on لرمانتف's play of the same title.[۱۷] Both the ballet Gayane and the Second Symphony were "successful and were warmly praised by Shostakovich."[۱۱] In 1944, Khachaturian composed the largely symbolic Anthem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.[۶]

Denunciation and restoration (1948)[ویرایش]

Khachaturian in 1964

In mid-December 1947, the Department for Agitation and Propaganda (better known as Agitprop) submitted to آندری ژدانف, the secretary of the کمیته مرکزی حزب کمونیست اتحاد شوروی, a document on the "shortcomings" in the development of Soviet music. On 10–13 January 1948, a conference was held at the کرملین مسکو in the presence of seventy musicians, composers, conductors and others who were confronted by Zhdanov:[۳۶]

We will consider that if these comrades دمیتری شوستاکوویچ, سرگئی پروکفیف, نیکولای میاسکوفسکی, Khachaturian, دمیتری کابالفسکی and Shebalin namely who are the principal and leading figures of the formalist direction in music. And that direction is fundamentally incorrect.

Thus, Khachaturian and other leading composers were denounced by the Communist Party as followers of the alleged formalism[۱۱] (i.e. "[a type of] music that was considered too advanced or difficult for the masses to enjoy")[۲] and their music was dubbed "anti-people".[۳۷] It was the Symphonic Poem (1947), later titled the Third Symphony, that officially earned Khachaturian the wrath of the Party.[۳۶][۳۸] Ironically, he wrote the work as a tribute to the 30th anniversary of the انقلاب اکتبر.[۳۹] He stated: "I wanted to write the kind of composition in which the public would feel my unwritten program without an announcement. I wanted this work to express the Soviet people's joy and pride in their great and mighty country."[۴۰]

Musicologist Blair Johnston believes that his "music contained few, if any, of the objectionable traits found in the music of some of his more adventuresome colleagues. In retrospect, it was most likely Khachaturian's administrative role in the Union [of Soviet Composers], perceived by the government as a bastion of politically incorrect music, and not his music as such, which earned him a place on the black list of 1948."[۴۱] In March 1948,[۲۱] Khachaturian "made a very full and humble apology for his artistic "errors" following the Zhdanov decree; his musical style, however, underwent no changes."[۴۱] He was sent to Armenia as a "punishment",[۱۱] and continued to be censured.[۲۱] By December 1948,[۲۱] he was "restored to favor later that year when he was praised for his film biography of Lenin"—Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (ru).[۱۷]

Later life (1950–78)[ویرایش]

In 1950, Khachaturian began conducting[۴۱] and started teaching composition at his alma maters—the Gnessin Institute (since 1950), and later at the کنسرواتوار دولتی چایکوفسکی مسکو (since 1951).[۱۳] Some of his notable students include Aziz El-Shawan,[۴۲] Andrei Eshpai,[۶] Anatol Vieru,[۶] ادگار هوهانیسیان,[۱۲] میکائیل تاریوردیف,[۶] Mark Minkov,[۴۳] آلکسی ریبنیکف,[۴۴] Tolib Shakhidi,[۴۵] Georgs Pelēcis,[۴۶] Rostislav Boiko (ru),[۱۲] and Nodar Gabunia (ru).[۱۲] During his career as a university professor, Khachaturian emphasized the role of folk music to his students and instilled the idea that composers should master their nations' folk music heritage.[۱۳]

In 1950, he began working on his third and last ballet, اسپارتاکوس (باله) (1950–54), which later proved to be his last internationally acclaimed work.[۱۱] He was named People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1954.[۱۷] He revised Spartacus in 1968.[۱۱]

Khachaturian's grave at the Komitas Pantheon in Yerevan

"Following the success of Spartacus towards the end of the fifties, his remaining years were devoted less to composition, and more to conducting, teaching, bureaucracy and travel."[۱۹] He served as the President of the Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Cooperation with Latin American States from 1958[۹] and was a member of the Soviet Peace Committee (since 1962).[۱۳] "He frequently appeared in world forums in the role of champion of an apologist for the Soviet idea of creative orthodoxy."[۱۷] Khachaturian toured with concerts of his own works in around 30 countries, including in all the بلوک شرق states,[۶] Italy (1950), Britain (1955, 1977), Latin America (1957) and the United States (1960, 1968).[۲][۱۹][۳] His January 1968 visit to U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. was a significant one. He conducted the National Symphony Orchestra in a program of his own works.[۴۱]

Khachaturian went on to serve again as Secretary of the Composers Union, starting in 1957 until his death.[۹][۱۳] He was also a deputy in the fifth Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (1958–62).[۴۷] In the last two decades of his life, Khachaturian wrote three concert rhapsodies—for violin (1961–62), cello (1963) and piano (1965)[۳۹]—and solo sonatas for unaccompanied cello, violin, and viola (1970s), which are considered to be his second and third instrumental trilogies.[۱۱]

Khachaturian died in Moscow on 1 May 1978, after a long illness,[۳] just short of his 75th birthday.[۳۹] He was buried at the پانتئون کومیتاس[۴۸] in ایروان on 6 May, next to other distinguished Armenians.[۶] He was survived by his son, Karen, and daughter, Nune,[۱۵] and his nephew, کارن خاچاتوریان, who was also a composer.[۱۱]


Khachaturian's works span a broad range of musical types, including ballets, symphonies, concertos, and film scores. Music critic Edward Greenfield expresses the opinion that Khachaturian "notably outshone other Soviet contemporaries in creating a sharply identifiable style, something which his successors have found impossible to emulate".[۱۹] He composed a great portion of his works in a ten-year span between 1936 and 1946, preceding and following the Second World War.[۴۹] Despite his formal restoration after the 1948 denunciation, Khachaturian only succeeded in composing one internationally acclaimed work in the last 30 years of his life, the ballet Spartacus.[۱۸]

According to James Bakst, what made Khachaturian unique among Soviet composers is "the blending of national Armenian vocal and instrumental intonations with contemporary orchestral techniques".[۵۰] Khachaturian's music is characterized by an active rhythmic development, which reaches either a mere repetition of the basic formula (ostinato) or "a game of emphasis within this formula".[۵۱]

The بانک مرکزی روسیه issued a commemorative coin depicting Spartacus in 2001.



Khachaturian is best known internationally for his ballet music.[upper-alpha ۲] His second ballet, گایانه, was largely reworked from his first ballet, Happiness.[۳۸][۵۳] اسپارتاکوس (باله) became his most acclaimed work in the post-Stalin period. These two compositions "remain his most successful compositions".[۵۴] According to Jonathan McCollum and Andy Nercessian, his music for these two ballets "can safely be included among the best known pieces of classical music throughout the world, a fact that is vitalized by perception that these are perhaps the only works through that the world really knows Armenian music".[۵۵] Ann Haskins of LA Weekly suggests that he has thus "made an indelible mark on the world of ballet".[۵۶]

Spartacus was popularized when the "Adagio of Spartacus and Phrygia" was used as the theme for a popular بی‌بی‌سی drama series The Onedin Line during the 1970s.[۳۹] The climax of Spartacus was also used in films such as کالیگولا (فیلم) (1979)[۵۷] and عصر یخبندان: ذوب (2006).[۵۸] برادران کوئن's وکیل هادساکر (1994) also prominently featured music from Spartacus and Gayane (the "Sabre Dance" included).[۵۸] Gayane's "Adagio" was used, among other films, in استنلی کوبریک's futuristic film ۲۰۰۱: ادیسه فضایی (فیلم).[۵۹]

Orchestral music[ویرایش]

Khachaturian wrote three symphonies: the First in 1934/5, the Second in 1943, and the Third in 1947.[۱۱][۶۰]

He also wrote three concertos: the کنسرتو پیانو (خاچاتوریان) (1936), the Violin Concerto (1940), and the Cello Concerto (1946).[۱۱]

Other compositions[ویرایش]

Khachaturian wrote موسیقی صحنه for several plays, including مکبث (1934, 1955), The Widow from Valencia (1940), Masquerade (1941), شاه لیر (1958).[۱۱]

He produced around 25 film scores.[۳۹][۶۰] Among them is پپو (فیلم) (1935), the first Armenian sound film.[۵۴] In 1950 he was awarded the USSR State Prize (Stalin Prize) for the score of نبرد استالینگراد (فیلم) (1949).[۶]


Musicologist Marina Frolova-Walker describes Khachaturian as the only internationally renowned Soviet composer "who emerged from the nationalist project".[۶۱] James Bakst interpreted Khachaturian's views as follows: "Music is a language created by the people. The people create intonational music forms which reveal at once his national elements of an art work."[۶۲]

Composer تیگران مانسوریان suggested that Khachaturian's music incorporates American characteristics and called the United States his "second homeland" in terms of musical influences, especially due to the sense of optimism in his works and lifestyle.[۶۳]

Armenian folk music[ویرایش]

Khachaturian used the "raw material" made available by کومیتاس وارداپت (pictured), who in the early 20th century collected thousands of pieces of Armenian folk music.[۶۴]

Khachaturian is widely known for his use of folk songs of various ethnic groups in his compositions, most notably those of Armenians.[upper-alpha ۳] Despite not having been born in Armenia, Khachaturian was "essentially an Armenian composer whose music exhibits his Armenian roots".[۵۲] "[M]any of his compositions evoke an Armenian melodic line. However, his works markedly differed from the conventional orchestrations of folk themes," writes روبن پل آدالیان. He suggests that Khachaturian's works carry "the vibrant rhythms and stirring pace of Caucasian dance music", but at the same time are "original compositions that reworked that cultural material through new instrumentation and according to European musical canons, resulting in a sound unique to the composer".[۵۴] He was particularly influenced by the folk-song collector, musicologist کومیتاس وارداپت,[۶۴] and composers آلکساندر اسپندیریان and رومانوس ملیکیان.[upper-alpha ۴] Khachaturian acknowledged that Komitas "singlehandedly laid the foundations for Armenia's classical tradition".[۶۶] In a 1969 article about Komitas, Khachaturian called him his "greatest teacher".[۶۷]

His plans to write an opera "on the destiny of the Armenian people, the tragic fate of Armenians scattered all over the world, their suffering and the struggle" never realized, and his "Armenian Rhapsody for mouth-organ and orchestra, intended for his close friend لری ادلر and the ارکستر سمفونیک شیکاگو" remained uncompleted. "Yet the intention, the spirit, was always there."[۱۹] Khachaturian emphasized his Armenian origin, stating:[۱۸]

No matter how I may waver between various musical languages, I remain an Armenian, but a European Armenian, not an Asian Armenian. Together with other [Armenian composers], we will make all of Europe and the whole world listen to our music. And when they hear our music, people are certain to say, 'Tell us about that people, and show us the country that produces such art.'
نیکلای ریمسکی-کورساکف

Other folk music[ویرایش]

During his university years, Khachaturian ترانسکریپسیون Armenian, Russian, Hungarian, Turkish and other folk songs.[۹] In his mature works, Khachaturian used elements from folk songs of Caucasian (including, but not limited to مردم گرجی), Eastern European (اوکراینیان, لهستانی (قوم)) and Middle Eastern (ترک‌های آناتولی, مردم کرد) peoples.[upper-alpha ۵] His first ballet, Happiness, incorporates a Ukrainian gopak, Georgian, Armenian and Russian dances and a رقص لزگی, an energetic dance of many Caucasian peoples.[۶۸] The Masquerade Suite includes a مازورکا, a Polish folk dance music.[۶۹] The ballet Gayane, like its predecessor, features a Lezginka.[۶۹] Act II of Gayane "is filled with Kurdish dances".[۷۰]

Russian classical music[ویرایش]

Khachaturian is cited by musicologists as a follower of Russian classical traditions.[upper-alpha ۶] According to the ارکستر سمفونیک تورنتو, he "carried forward into the twentieth century the colourful, folk-inspired style of such nineteenth-century Russian composers as نیکلای ریمسکی-کورساکف and پیوتر ایلیچ چایکوفسکی".[۷۱] Like the members of بزرگان انگشت‌شمار, especially الکساندر برودین and Rimsky-Korsakov, whose works to some extent served him as a model, Khachaturian drew heavily upon "Eastern" and "Oriental" material in creating compositions in various classical genres and styles of European origin. But Khachaturian's cultural identity and rigorous musical training within the Soviet establishment allowed him to penetrate more deeply to the essence of Eastern and Caucasian music and to incorporate it more fully in his mature work, including the ballets.[۷۲] "Never dissociating himself from the traditions of Russian music, he came to be regarded in Moscow as a mouthpiece of the entire Soviet Orient, gathering up all the diverse traditions into a grand generalization," concludes Marina Frolova-Walker.[۶۱]


From left to right: Khachaturian depicted on Soviet (1983), Russian (2003) and Armenian (2003) postage stamps


Khachaturian is generally considered one of the leading composers of the Soviet Union.[۱] Alongside دمیتری شوستاکوویچ and سرگئی پروکفیف, he has been generally cited as one of the three greatest composers of the Soviet era.[۷۳][۷۴] As early as 1957 the تایم called Prokofiev, Shostakovich and Khachaturian "the three modern giants" of Soviet music.[۷۵] They are sometimes collectively referred to as the three "titans" of Soviet music.[۷۶][۷۷] "Whether or not history will support the verdict, Khachaturian in his lifetime ranked as the third most celebrated Soviet composer after Shostakovich and Prokofiev," wrote the music critic Ronald Crichton in 1978.[۱۹] According to the فیلارمونیک لس‌آنجلس, "his works do not enjoy the international reputation that those of" Shostakovich and Prokofiev do.[۵۳] With the two aforementioned composers and دمیتری کابالفسکی, Khachaturian "was one of the few Soviet composers to have become known to the wider international public".[۷۸] According to music historian Harlow Robinson, "his proletariat origins, non-Russian ethnic origins and Soviet training [made him] a powerful symbol within the Soviet musical establishment of the ideal of a multinational Soviet cultural identity, an identity which the composer enthusiastically embraced and exploited both at home and abroad". Unlike Prokofiev and Shostakovich, Khachaturian was "entirely a creation of the Soviet musical and dance establishment".[۷۹]

Reputation in the West[ویرایش]

Josef Woodard, writing for the لس آنجلس تایمز, suggests that he has "long [been] considered a lighter-weight participant among 20th-century composers,"[۸۰] while classic music broadcaster Norman Gilliland describes him as a "major" composer of the 20th century.[۸۱] Although describing him as an important and highly popular composer and a "man of pronounced gifts", Harold C. Schonberg argued in 1978 that Khachaturian "frankly composed popular music" and that after being exposed to his work it becomes evident that it is mostly "formula writing." While praising his work as exotic and colorful, he downgraded Khachaturian to a "bureaucratic composer, turning out well-crafted pieces of no particular personality, and certainly nothing that would rock the boat."[۸۲]

Tim Ashley wrote in گاردین in 2009 that Khachaturian's popularity fell in the West, because of his image as one of Soviet music's "yes-men". He argued, "Such a view is simplistic, given that he had a major brush with the authorities in 1948. But it's also easy to see how he acquired his awkward reputation when you hear his Violin Concerto, dating from 1940. It's an immensely attractive work, full of his trademark Armenian folk flourishes, and the swaying, hypnotic Andante is notably beautiful. But the unforced optimism of the outer movements now seems unthinking when we realise it was composed at a time when Stalin was giving Prokofiev and Shostakovich hell."[۸۳] In 2003 conductor Marin Alsop opined that Khachaturian is "very underperformed" and "somewhat underrated". She commented further: "His music, of course, has a little bit of the edginess of the 20th-century sound, the dissonances coming in. But at the same time it marries this beautiful neo-romanticism and lush orchestration and the over-the-top approach, so I think, he can be quite relevant these days."[۴]

In Armenia[ویرایش]

Khachaturian's statue near the تالار اپرای ایروان

Khachaturian was the most renowned Armenian composer of the 20th century,[۸۴] and the most famous representative of Soviet Armenian culture.[۸۵] He has been described as "by far the most important Armenian composer",[۸۶] the "Armenian پیوتر ایلیچ چایکوفسکی",[۸۷] and deemed a key figure in 20th-century Armenian culture.[۸۸] He remains the only Armenian composer to rise to international significance.[upper-alpha ۷] Khachaturian is highly regarded in Armenia[۸۹] and considered a national treasure.[۸] Khachaturian is embraced and celebrated by the Armenian people "as a famous son who earned world-wide recognition".[۹۰] شاهان آرتسرونی has described Khachaturian as "the musical ambassador of Armenian culture".[۹۱] دیوید مارشال لانگ noted in his 1970 book on Armenia that "For making Armenia's popular musical heritage known all over the world, his homeland pays him well deserved acclaim."[۹۲]

He had a great influence on the development of Armenian music in the 20th century. "Naturally, he immediately became an example for young national composers and a hero in Armenia," suggests Maya Pritsker.[۱۸] Khachaturian's influence can be traced in nearly all trends of Armenian classical music traditions (symphonic and chamber), including on آرنو باباجانیان, a significant Armenian composer of the late Soviet period.[۹۳] His unique symphonic interpretation has influenced ادوارد میرزویان, کنستانتین اوربلیان and others.[۹۴] Khachaturian is credited for bringing Armenian music worldwide recognition.[۹] Poet هامو ساهیان said about Khachaturian: "He became the big denial of our myth of smallness, [he] became the symbol of measuring our small people with the great ones... [He] became our certificate of civilization."[۹۵]

Posthumous honors and tribute[ویرایش]

The ارکستر hall of the تالار اپرای ایروان has been officially called the Aram Khachaturian Grand Concert Hall since 1978.[۶] The خانه‌موزه آرام خاچاتوریان in Yerevan was inaugurated in 1982.[۹۶]

Music schools are named after Khachaturian in Tbilisi,[۹۷] Moscow (established in 1967, named after him in 1996),[۹۸] Yerevan,[۴۷] خوجاوند in Nagorno-Karabakh,[۹۹] and واترتاون، ماساچوست, Massachusetts, US (run by the Hamazkayin Armenian Educational and Cultural Society).[۱۰۰] Streets in Yerevan,[۱۰۱] Tbilisi,[۱۰۲] Moscow (ru), آستانه (قزاقستان) (Kazakhstan)[۱۰۳] and سیمفروپول (Crimea)[۱۰۴] are named after Khachaturian.

On 31 July 1999 a three-and-a-half meter high statue of Khachaturian in 19th-century واقع‌گرایی (هنر) style[۱۰۵] by Yuri Petrosyan was unveiled before the Khachaturian Hall of the تالار اپرای ایروان in attendance of President روبرت کوچاریان, Speaker کارن دمیرچیان and leading poet سیلوا کاپوتیکیان.[۱۰۶] A statue of Khachaturian by Georgiy Frangulyan was unveiled in Moscow on 31 October 2006. Notable attendees included Armenian President Kocharyan, Moscow Mayor یوری لوژکف and Russia's First Lady لودمیلا پوتینا.[۱۰۷] On 30 April 2013, a bust of Khachaturian erected by sculptor Gevorg Gevorgyan was opened in the street named after him in Yerevan's ناحیه آرابکیر by Yerevan Mayor تارون مارگاریان on his 110th anniversary.[۱۰۸]

Khachaturian appeared on the 50-درام ارمنستان banknote (1998–2004)[۱۰۹]

In 1998, the بانک مرکزی ارمنستان issued 50-درام ارمنستان banknotes depicting Khachaturian's portrait and the Yerevan Opera Theater on the obverse and an episode from the ballet Gayane and کوه آرارات on the reverse. It remained in use until 2004 when it was replaced by a coin.[۱۰۹] He is the only composer to be depicted on Armenian currency.

In 1983, the Yerevan Studio produced a TV documentary film on Khachaturian.[۱۱۰] In 2003, an 83-minute-long documentary about Khachaturian with unique footage was directed by Peter Rosen and narrated by اریک بوگوسیان.[۱۱۱] The film won the Best Documentary at the 2003 جشنواره فیلم هالیوود.[۱۱۲] In 2004, TV Kultura, Russia's government-owned art channel, made a documentary on Khachaturian entitled Century of Aram Khachaturian (Век Арама Хачатуряна).[۱۱۳]

In 1993 the festival of symphonic music Aram Khachaturian-93 was held in Yerevan.[۴۷] The Aram Khachaturian International Competition (Արամ Խաչատրյանի անվան միջազգային մրցույթ) is held annually in Yerevan since 2003.[۱۱۴]

In 2009, Russia's flag carrier, آئروفلوت, named one of its Airbus A319-112 planes after Khachaturian.[۱۱۵]

In 2013,[۱۱۶] UNESCO inscribed a collection of Khachaturian's handwritten notes and film music in the حافظه جهانی یونسکو.[۱۱۷]

Awards & titles[ویرایش]

A نقاشی دیواری of Khachaturian painted by Robert Nikoghosyan near the ورنیساژ ایروان in July 2015[۱۱۸]

Soviet Union[۶۵][۱۱۹]

  • HeroOfSocialistLabour.jpg Hero of Socialist Labor (1973)
  • Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png نشان لنین (1939, 1963, 1973)
  • People Artist of the USSR1.jpg جایزه هنرمند مردمی اتحاد جماهیر شوروی (1954), جمهوری شوروی فدراتیو سوسیالیستی روسیه (1947), جمهوری شوروی سوسیالیستی ارمنستان (1955), جمهوری شوروی سوسیالیستی گرجستان (1963), جمهوری شوروی سوسیالیستی آذربایجان (1973)
  • Honored Art Worker of the Armenian SSR (1938), Russian SFSR (1944), جمهوری شوروی سوسیالیستی ازبکستان (1967)
  • Orderredbannerlabor rib.png Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1945, 1966)
  • Order october revolution rib.png نشان انقلاب اکتبر (1971)
  • جایزه لنین (1959) for the ballet Spartacus
  • جایزه دولتی اتحاد شوروی (1941 for Violin Concerto, 1943 for ballet Gayane, 1946 for the Second Symphony, 1950 for the film نبرد استالینگراد (فیلم), 1971 for the Triad of Concerto-Rhapsodies: for violin and orchestra; for cello and orchestra; for piano and orchestra)

Other states[۱۱۹]

  • Order of the Science of Art of the United Arab Republic (1961, "for outstanding musical achievements")
  • Medal of Pope John XXIII (1963)
  • Medal of the Iranian Shah (1965)
  • Honored Art Worker of جمهوری خلق لهستان (1972, "for contribution to the Polish culture")
  • Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Commandeur ribbon.svg Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France) and title of Commandeur (1974)

Academic titles[۱۳]

  • Professor of Music — 1950
  • Honorary Member of the آکادمی ملی سانتا سسیلیا, Rome, Italy — 1960
  • آکادمیسین of the آکادمی هنرهای برلین — 1961
  • Honorary Professor of the Conservatorio Nacional de Música, Mexico — 1960
  • آکادمیسین of the فرهنگستان ملی علوم ارمنستان — 1963
  • Doctor of Arts (Доктор искусствоведения), Academy of Sciences of the USSR — 1965[۹]



  1. "Նա ազգային առաջին բալետի, սիմֆոնիայի, գործիքային կոնցերտների հեղինակն է, հայկ. կինոերաժշտության հիմնադիրը:" He is the author of the first national ballet, symphony, concerto, first Arm. film score.[۶]
    "В 1939 году Арам Хачатурян сочинил музыку к первому армянскому балету «Счастье»." In 1939 Aram Khachaturian wrote the music to the first Armenian ballet Happiness.[۷]
  2. "Khachaturian's world renown ... was due to his two Romantic ballets Gayaneh and Spartacus, and his attractively melodious concertos."[۳۰]
    "Khachaturian is principally known for his ballet music..."[۵۲]
    "...it is for his ballet music that he was and remains best known both in the Soviet Union and in the West."[۱۶]
    "...his fame in the West rests chiefly on two ballets, Gayane (1942) and Spartacus (1954)...[۳۹]
  3. "Khachaturian's characteristic musical style draws on the melodic and rhythmic vitality of Armenian folk music."[۴۱]
    "...Armenian folk [music] ... can be heard in nearly all Khachaturian's works."[۳۰]
    "In these Khachaturian displays a characteristic vitality of rhythm, a penchant for rich orchestration and an effulgent melodic style, frequently owing much to the inflections of the folk music of his native Armenia."[۳۹]
    "The exotic lyrical patterns and improvisatory characteristics of Khachaturyan's music are the result of national Armenian intonations."[۵۰]
    "The influence of Armenian folk music can be seen in the frequent hectic ostinatos, in chords based on fourths and fifths (inspired by the open strings of the Armenian saz), and a rhapsodic improvisational form of melody."[۳۰]
  4. "Նրա արվեստը սերտորեն առնչվում է Կոմիտասի, Ա. Սպենիարյանի, Ռ. Մելիքյանի ստեղծագործություններին, հատկապես հայ ժող. երաժշտությանը:"[۶۵]
    "... he repeatedly acknowledged his Armenian predecessors (Komitas, for instance), he evolved his musical language from ethnic models, and he took as his creed the words of the Armenian pioneer Spendarian, who advised him to "study the music of your own people and drink in the sound of life".[۱۹]
  5. "...music which not only makes use of the folklore of Armenia, but also draws upon the national characteristics of Georgia, the Ukraine, Turkey, etc."[۵۲]
  6. "At the same time, Khachaturyan is closely associated with Russian music as an outstanding school of artistic craftsmanship, and with its humane lyricism."[۵۰]
    "Khachaturian's own musical style reflected his background. He was highly skilled and well trained in the Russian classical tradition, and he frequently utilize the rich folk music traditions of the Caucasus in his original compositions, especially the ballet."[۱۶]
    "Khachaturian became a manifestation of one of the cornerstones of Soviet arts policy – the combination of the folk heritage of the various Socialist Republics with Russia's artistic traditions, embodied in music by composers such as Tchaikovsky and Rimsky-Korsakov."[۵۳]
  7. "Aram Khachaturian was the first, and so far the only, Armenian composer to achieve world renown."[۳۰]


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  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ ۲٫۲ ۲٫۳ ۲٫۴ Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century 2013
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ ۳٫۲ New York Times obituary 1978.
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ Huizenga, NPR 2003
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  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ ۶٫۲ ۶٫۳ ۶٫۴ ۶٫۵ ۶٫۶ ۶٫۷ ۶٫۸ Geodakyan 1979, p. 19.
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  8. ۸٫۰ ۸٫۱ Frolova-Walker 1998, p. 371.
  9. ۹٫۰ ۹٫۱ ۹٫۲ ۹٫۳ ۹٫۴ ۹٫۵ Geodakyan 1979, p. 18.
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  21. ۲۱٫۰ ۲۱٫۱ ۲۱٫۲ ۲۱٫۳ Current Biography Yearbook 1949
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  26. ۲۶٫۰ ۲۶٫۱ ۲۶٫۲ ۲۶٫۳ "Биография Арама Хачатуряна [Aram Khachaturian's biography]" (به русский). ریانووستی. 6 June 2013. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  27. Shneerson 1959, p. 24.
  28. Shneerson 1959, p. 25.
  29. Shneerson 1959, p. 29.
  30. ۳۰٫۰ ۳۰٫۱ ۳۰٫۲ ۳۰٫۳ ۳۰٫۴ Complete Classical Music Guide 2012, p. 301
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  33. Steyn 2009, p. 11.
  34. Yuzefovich 1985, p. 127.
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  38. ۳۸٫۰ ۳۸٫۱ Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers 1985
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  40. Yuzefovich 1985, p. 191.
  41. ۴۱٫۰ ۴۱٫۱ ۴۱٫۲ ۴۱٫۳ ۴۱٫۴ Johnston, AllMusic 2005
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  48. Khachaturian's memorial tombstone at Komitas Pantheon
  49. Lebrecht 1996, p. 431.
  50. ۵۰٫۰ ۵۰٫۱ ۵۰٫۲ Bakst 1977, p. 336.
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  52. ۵۲٫۰ ۵۲٫۱ ۵۲٫۲ Rosenberg 1987, p. 112.
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  55. McCollum & Nercessian 2004, pp. 95–96.
  56. Haskins, Ann (11 August 2008). "Media City Ballet Pays Tribute to Aram Khachaturian". LA Weekly.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  57. Spencer, Kristopher (2008). Film and Television Scores, 1950–1979: A Critical Survey by Genre. McFarland. p. 125. ISBN 9780786452286.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
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  61. ۶۱٫۰ ۶۱٫۱ Frolova-Walker 1998, p. 362.
  62. Bakst 1977, p. 337.
  63. In the documentary Khachaturian (2003, directed by Peter Rosen), Tigran Mansurian states: "Every artist has a second homeland. When I think of Shostakovich Russia is his first homeland. But I can't help but think of Austro-Germanic music, which is his foundation. Prokofiev's second homeland is, of course, France. Khachaturian's second homeland, in my opinion, is America. That happiness, that health, that love of life, that way of saying 'No' to death, that strength that America has in its music." The film is available online here بایگانی‌شده در ۲۰۱۴-۱۰-۰۶ توسط Wayback Machine. Mansurian appears at around 33:50—34:30.
  64. ۶۴٫۰ ۶۴٫۱ Soulahian Kuyumjian, Rita (2001). Archeology of Madness: Komitas, Portrait of an Armenian Icon. Princeton, New Jersey: Gomidas Institute. p. 26. ISBN 1-903656-10-9. In the following decades [the songs of the Armenian peasantry transcribed by Komitas] served as a fertile source of raw material for future Armenian composers, among them Aram Khachadourian, whose ballets Kayane [Gayane] and Symphony No.2 contain important elements of folk melodies.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  65. ۶۵٫۰ ۶۵٫۱ Geodakyan 1979, pp. 18–19.
  66. Church, Michael (21 April 2011). "Komitas Vardapet, forgotten folk hero". The Guardian.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  67. Sovetskoe iskusstvo (به русский). Moscow (10): 1–2. 1969.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  68. Robinson 2013, p. 25.
  69. ۶۹٫۰ ۶۹٫۱ Manning, Lucy (2013). Orchestral "Pops" Music: A Handbook (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 140. ISBN 9780810884236.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  70. Robinson 2013, p. 26.
  71. "Khachaturian: Waltz from Masquerade". ارکستر سمفونیک تورنتو. Archived from the original on 2014-03-10.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  72. Robinson 2013, p. 24.
  73. Steyn 2009, p. 9: "Along with Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitri Shostakovich, Aram Khachaturyan is one of the great masters of the Soviet school of composition."
  74. "Арам Хачатурян [Aram Khachaturian]" (به русский). Moscow State Academic Philharmonic Society. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Один из самых известных композиторов ХХ века, А. И. Хачатурян вместе с С. С. Прокофьевым и Д. Д. Шостаковичем вошел в блистательную триаду композиторов, ставших гордостью отечественной музыки ХХ века и определивших на многие годы ее облик.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  75. "Music: Moscow Music Congress". Time (magazine). 15 April 1957.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  76. Volkov, Solomon (2004). Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 86. ISBN 9781617747717.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  77. "Remembering Aram Khachaturian, A 'Titan' Of Soviet Music". رادیو اروپای آزاد/رادیو آزادی. 5 June 2013.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  78. خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  79. Robinson 2013, p. 23.
  80. Woodard, Josef (23 August 2008). "Khachaturian a la Thibaudet". Los Angeles Times.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  81. Gilliland, Norman (2009). Scores to Settle: Stories of the Struggle to Create Great Music (1st ed.). Madison, Wisconsin: NEMO Productions. ISBN 9780971509337. He would go on to become a teacher there on his way to becoming a major composer of the twentieth century.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  82. Schonberg, Harold C. (3 May 1978). "Exemplar of Socialist Realism". The New York Times.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد. (archived)
  83. Ashley, Tim (11 June 2009). "Khachaturian: Violin Concerto; Concerto-Rhapsody for Violin and Orchestra". گاردین.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  84. Ricci, James (10 August 2006). "Bustling Outpost of Armenian Culture". لس آنجلس تایمز. ...Aram Khachaturian, the most famous Armenian composer of the 20th century.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  85. Suny, Ronald G. "Soviet Armenia, 1921–91". In Herzig, Edmund; Kurkchiyan, Marina. The Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity. Routledge. p. 120. ISBN 978-0700706396. The achievements of Soviet Armenian culture were respected both within the USSR and throughout the world. Most famous was the composer Aram Khachaturian...صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  86. McCollum & Nercessian 2004, pp. 95-96.
  87. Ginell, Richard S. (1 October 2003). "Making sure Khachaturian gets his due". Los Angeles Times.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  88. "Aram Khatchaturian". Hye Sharzhoom. دانشگاه ایالتی کالیفرنیا در فرزنو. 25. October 2003. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  89. Staines, Joe, ed. (2010). The Rough Guide to Classical Music (5th revised and expanded ed.). London: Rough Guides. pp. 279–280. ISBN 9781405383219. Armenians are extremely proud of Khachaturian...صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  90. Steyn 2009, pp. 21–22.
  91. Ziflioğlu, Vercihan (12 October 2012). "Virtuosos to sing works by Armenian musicians". Hürriyet Daily News.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  92. Lang, David Marshall (190). Armenia: Cradle of Civilization. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 262.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  93. "Բաբաջանյան Առնո [Babajanyan Arno]" (به հայերեն). Yerevan State University Armenian Studies Institute. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. ...նկատելի է Ա.Ե. Խաչատրյանի և Մ. Ռախմանինովի ոճերի ազդեցությունը:صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  94. خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  95. ""Aram Khachaturian became our certificate of civilization": today is composer's birthday". Armenpress. 6 June 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  96. "House-Museum of Aram Khachaturian". Virtual Museum of Aram Khachaturian.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  97. "A. Khachaturiani Musical School #10 in Tbilisi". Georgia Yellow Pages. Archived from the original on 2014-04-13.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  98. "История школы [School's history]" (به русский). Moscow City Department of Culture. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  99. Balayan, Emma (26 November 2013). Մարտունու երաժշտական դրպոցը ապահովում է կայուն մակարդակ. Azat Artsakh (به հայերեն). Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  100. "Aram Khachaturian School of Music". Hamazkayin USA. Archived from the original on 2014-12-30.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  101. "Aram Khachatrian St Erevan, Armenia". Google Maps.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  102. "Aram Khachaturiani St T'bilisi, Georgia". Google Maps.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  103. ул. Хачатуряна, Астана (به русский). map24.kz.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  104. "ulitsa Khachaturyana, Simferopol', Crimea, Ukraine". Google Maps.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  105. Steyn 2009, p. 19.
  106. Khanjyan, Artyush. Մայրաքաղաքի քարե վկաները. Արամ Խաչատրյան [The Capital's Stone Witnesses. Aram Khachaturian]. Երևանի արձանները [Statues of Yerevan] (به հայերեն). Yerevan: VMV Print. ISBN 99941-920-1-9.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  107. "В Москве открыт памятник композитору Араму Хачатуряну [Statue of Aram Khachaturian unveiled in Moscow]" (به русский). RIA Novosti. 31 October 2006.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  108. "Արաբկիր վարչական շրջանում բացվեց Արամ Խաչատրյանի կիսանդրին [Aram Khachatryan's bust erected in Arabkir district]" (به հայերեն). PanARMENIAN.Net. 30 April 2013.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  109. ۱۰۹٫۰ ۱۰۹٫۱ "Banknotes out of circulation – 50 drams". Central Bank of Armenia. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  110. "Արամ Խաչատրյան` արվեստագետ քաղաքացին [Aram Khachaturian the artist citizen]" (به հայերեն). Public Television company of Armenia Archives. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  111. Kehr, Dave (17 October 2003). "A Composer's Life, Beyond Vaudeville and Stalin". New York Times.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  112. "Khachaturian". University at Buffalo. 2003.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  113. "Век Арама Хачатуряна [Century of Aram Khachaturian]" (به русский). TV Kultura. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  114. "Aram Khachaturian International Competition: About us". Archived from the original on 2014-04-13.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  115. Пресс-релиз Аэрофлота о введении в эксплуатацию А319 "А. Хачатурян [Press-release of Aeroflot about putting into operation the A319 "A. Khachaturian"] (به русский). Aeroflot. 19 June 2009.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  116. "Aram Khachaturian's works included in UNESCO's Memory of the World International Register". Public Radio of Armenia. 19 June 2013.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  117. "Collection of note manuscripts and film music of Composer Aram Khachaturian". UNESCO.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  118. "Հայ մեծերի դիմանկարները՝ Երևան քաղաքի պատերին" (به հայերեն). Yerkir Media. 25 July 2015.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  119. ۱۱۹٫۰ ۱۱۹٫۱ "Titles, prizes, awards". Virtual Museum of Aram Khachaturian. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.


Books and book chapters[ویرایش]

  • Bakst, James (1977). "Khachaturyan". A History of Russian-Soviet Music (Reprint ed.). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0837194229.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Geodakyan, Gevorg (1972). Арам Хачатурян [Aram Khachaturian] (به русский). Yerevan: Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences Press.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Kharajanian, R. (1973). Фортепианное творчество Арама Хачатуряна [Aram Khachaturian`s piano music] (به русский). Yerevan: Hayastan Publishing.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Robinson, Harlow (2013). "The Caucasian Connection: National Identity in the Ballets of Aram Khachaturian". In Kanet, Roger E. Identities, Nations and Politics After Communism. روتلج. pp. 23–32. ISBN 9781317968665.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Rybakova, S. (1975). Арам Ильич Хачатурян: Сборник статей [Aram Khachaturian: Collection of articles] (به русский). Moscow: Sovetsky Kompozitor.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Shneerson, Grigory (1959). Aram Khachaturyan. Xenia Danko (translator). Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Yuzefovich, Victor (1985). Aram Khachaturyan. Nicholas Kournokoff and Vladimir Bobrov (translators). New York: Sphinx Press. ISBN 0-8236-8658-2.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Grigoryan, Armine (2012). Shahmanyan, Anahit, ed. Album: Aram Khachaturian. Aram Khachaturian Museum, Ministry of Culture of RA. Yerevan: "Krunk" Publishing.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Avetisyan, Nelly (2014). Grigoryan, Armine, ed. Aram Khachaturian and The Contemporary World. Aram Khachaturian Museum, Ministry of Culture of RA. Yerevan: "Amrots Group", "Tigran Mec" Publishing. ISBN 978-99941-31-80-8.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Grigoryan, Armine; Shahgaldyan, Karen; Kocharyan, Karen, eds. (2016). Aram Khachaturian. Arrangements for Piano Trio. Arranged by Avetik Pivazyan and Ruben Asatryan. Aram Khachaturian Museum, Ministry of Culture of RA. Yerevan: "Komitas" Publishing. ISMN 979-0-801-600-79-0.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Grigoryan, Armine; Shahmanyan, Anahit, eds. (2017). Արամ Խաչատրյան. նամականի [Aram Khachaturian: Complete Collection of Letters] (به in Armenian). Aram Khachaturian Museum, Ministry of Culture of RA. Yerevan: "Grakan Hayreniq", "Hayastan" Publishing. ISBN 978-5-540-02446-4.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.

Dictionary and encyclopedia articles[ویرایش]

  • "Aram Ilich Khachaturian". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale. 2004.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • "Aram Khachaturian". The Complete Classical Music Guide. London: دورلینگ کیندرزلی. 2012. p. 301. ISBN 9781465401342.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Blackwood, Alan (2013). "Aram Khachaturian". In Stacy, Lee; Henderson, Lol. Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century. Abingdon, Oxon: روتلج. p. 341. ISBN 1-57958-079-3.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Geodakyan, Gevorg (1979). "Խաչատրյան Արամ [Khachatryan Aram]". Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia Volume 5 (به հայերեն). Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia Publishing. pp. 18–20.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Geodakyan, Gevorg (1981). "Хачатурян А. И. [Khachaturian A. I.]". Музыкальная энциклопедия [Musical encyclopedia] (به русский). Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya and Sovetsky Kompozitor. Archived from the original on 2014-03-22.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Johnston, Blair (2005). "Aram Khachaturian: Artist Biography". In Woodstra, Chris; Brennan, Gerald; Schrott, Allen. All Music Guide to Classical Music: The Definitive Guide to Classical Music. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. pp. 685–6. ISBN 9780879308650.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.; also available online at AllMusic
  • "Khachaturian, Aram". Current Biography Yearbook. New York: H. W. Wilson Company. 9: 345. 1949.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Lebrecht, Norman (1996). "Aram Khachaturian". The Companion to 20th-century Music. New York: دا کاپو پرس. p. 183. ISBN 9780306807343.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • McCollum, Jonathan; Nercessian, Andy (2004). "Aram Khachaturian". Armenian Music: A Comprehensive Bibliography and Discography. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 9780810849679.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Petrak, Albert M., ed. (1985). "Khachaturian, Aram Ilyich". David Mason Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers (1st ed.). Garden City, New York: Reproducing Piano Roll Foundation. pp. 1329–30. ISBN 9780385142786.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Randel, Don Michael, ed. (1996). "Khachaturian, Aram Il'yich". The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music. Cambridge: انتشارات دانشگاه هاروارد. p. 445. ISBN 9780674372993.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Rosenberg, Kenyon C. (1987). "Khachaturian, Aram". A Basic Classical and Operatic Recordings Collection for Libraries. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press. pp. 111–112. ISBN 9780810820418.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Tomoff, Kiril (2006). Creative Union: The Professional Organization of Soviet Composers, 1939-1953. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN 9780801444111.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.

Journal articles[ویرایش]

  • Chebotaryan, Gayane (1963). "Արամ Խաչատրյան (Ծննդյան 60-ամյակի առթիվ) [Aram Khachatrian]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (به հայերեն). Yerevan: فرهنگستان ملی علوم ارمنستان (3): 109–114.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Orga, Ates (1997). "Aram Il'yich Khachaturian (1903–1978)". Naxos Records. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.
  • Shostakovich, Dmitri (1959). "Яркий талант [Bright talent]". Soviet Music (به русский) (6).صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد. [an essay praising Khachaturian]
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • خطای لوآ در پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/Identifiers در خط 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Tigranova, Irina G. (1970). "Արամ Խաչատրյանի ոճի մի առանձնահատկության մասին [About a Certain Particuliarity of Aram Khachatourian's Style]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (به հայերեն). Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences (1): 26–35.صفحه پودمان:Citation/CS1/en/styles.css محتوایی ندارد.

Newspaper articles[ویرایش]

External links[ویرایش]

خطای لوآ در پودمان:Authority_control در خط 381: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

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